The surnames of Andhra Kshatriyas were created or formed during the 12th, 13th and 14th Centuries (AD). Prior to that, there were only Gotras (clans) but no surnames. Marriage alliances were being made between persons of different Gotras but not with persons of the same Gotras. At the time of formation of surnames, the villages where persons were residing generally became their surnames. From the data collected by Sri Buddharaju Varahala Raju, there were 109 surnames for Andhra Kshatriyas. 80 surnames were based on village names; 20 were based on Chivalry names; 1 based on nature and 8 based on other ways. It did not include Kshatriya Raju surnames of Rayalaseema and Karnataka. For some families the names of their famous and prominent ancestors became their surnames. For example - Bhupathi Raju, Rudra Raju, Tirumala Raju, etc. Gotra (clan), Vamsam means heredity.
The Vamsams are of two types:
- Janma Vamsam (based on Birth)
- Vidya Vamsam (based on Education)
Those Kshatriyas who were educated under certain Sages (Rishis) became their Vamsiyas. They belong to the respective Vidya Vamsams.
Sage Apastamba wrote a book named Apastamba Sutramulu incorporating the traditions of persons wearing the sacred thread (Dvija). All the traditions and ceremonies of Rajus are based on these Gotras. The Rajus of Northern Circars belong to
These Four Gotras:
The Rajus of Vijayanagar have these additional Gotras: